A colorful day of celebration was held at Morijo Primary school last week. Despite being the school holidays, students, their parents and the Morijo community all gathered to celebrate the arrival of 38 desks and text books, generously donated to the school by San Diego Zoo Global.

Moijo Primary School is situated in Kirimon Conservancy a newly formed Community Conservancy. The formation of this Conservancy was a joint collaboration of work with NRT, Loisaba and The Nature Conservancy.

Prior to the arrival of these desks and books the 60 students who attend Morijo Primary School aged three to seven years old had had no education materials. All 60 students are taught by just one teacher – John Serenoi Lenkirikai. John has followed in his father’s footsteps and achieved his diploma in Early Childhood Development immediately after leaving school. Representing San Diego Zoo Global at the event was Kirstie Ruppert, Senior Research Coordinator, and Jenna Stacy-Dawes, Research Coordinator. San Diego Zoo Global currently have two ongoing projects at Loisaba Conservancy.

One project focuses on reticulated giraffe, whose populations have experienced drastic declines over the past few decades. In the year and a half that the project has been active, 135 camera traps have been placed throughout Loisaba over 5 rounds capturing a total of 586,483 images! In addition to the camera trap data, the Twiga Walinzi (which means Giraffe Guards in Swahili), also conduct photo monitoring to help estimate giraffe movements and to build a database of images for every individual giraffe. This monitoring has resulted in 3,112 separate encounters of giraffe with the largest tower size observed at 48 individuals. The camera trap and photo monitoring data is combined with human dimensions work in the areas surrounding the conservancy as well as tracking data from 6 GPS tracking devices that were affixed to individual giraffe in June earlier this year.

The second project, which is in its pilot phase, focuses on leopards and to read more see here: https://loisaba.com/living-with-leopards-community-conflicts-in-northern-kenya/

Celebrations began with an opening speech by the school committee chairman, followed by two community elders and Tom Silvester, Loisaba CEO. Ambrose Letouliaa, SDZG’s on the ground researcher, along with Kirstie and Jenna gave a presentation to the audience on their work and the importance of co-existence with wildlife. Their most important finding to date from the giraffe project is that the estimated use of giraffe parts and product is at 30%! Following this, we were treated to some dancing from the Morijo community and a presentation of gifts to the visitors from the community. The celebrations then continued into the day.

We want to thank San Diego Zoo Global for their wonderful support to Morijo Primary School – these desks and books will not just help to educate the current 60 occupants of the school but many, many more to come. Thank you!!!

By: Izzy Parsons

Photo: © Hannah Campbell 2016

By: Kirstie Ruppert (San Diego Zoo Global)

“Do leopards cause you any problems?” Your answer to this question likely depends on where you live in the world and your primary source of income. When this question was asked to community members around Loisaba Conservancy, 75% of people said yes, that leopards kill or injure their livestock.  Such experiences can influence community members’ attitudes towards leopards and decisions when they come across leopards in the future. These connections are important to understand for conservation because leopard populations are in decline across their range. Leopards are listed Vulnerable by IUCN, with human-leopard conflict listed as the greatest source of direct mortality.

Pastoralism is the dominant lifestyle in this region, so negative interactions charge the dynamics between people and wildlife. Most of the wildlife in Kenya lives outside of government parks and reserves, so it is critical to work with communities that are sharing land and resources with the wildlife that we want to protect. To better understand the ways that people are interacting with and perceiving leopards, San Diego Zoo Global is working in partnership with Loisaba Conservancy to conduct social and ecological (see “Luring Wild, Camera-Shy Leopards into Getting their Photo Taken”) research on the local leopard population.

In the summer of 2017, Ambrose Letoluai conducted close to 90 interviews in communities around Loisaba. Ambrose completed his secondary education with support from the Loisaba Community Conservation Foundation, recently graduated from the Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, and was eager to return home and apply his new skills and passion for conservation.

He collected data so we can test the relationship between livestock loss, risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions towards leopards. Another key aspect was getting information on the ways that people are currently protecting their livestock. People have reinforced their bomas (corrals) with wire mesh, put out solar lights, and fixed wind chimes or propellers to create noise and deter predators at night.

Photos © Ambrose Letoluai 2017

These measures may help prevent livestock loss to leopards, but we couldn’t know that until we started collecting this information and monitoring human-leopard interactions over time. Moving forward, we hope to combine what we learn about the leopards living on Loisaba with the information gathered in these interviews (like where the most livestock loss is occurring) to find solutions that work for communities and help protect leopards in the spaces that they share.

This research is a collaborative effort between San Diego Zoo Global and Loisaba Conservancy, and project investigators are: Nicholas Pilfold (SDZG), Ambrose Letoluai (Loisaba), Hannah Campbell (Loisaba), Megan Owen (SDZG), Symon Masiaine (Loisaba), Dino Martins (Mpala Research Centre), David O’Connor (SDZG), Matthew Brown (The Nature Conservancy), and Jenny Glikman (SDZG).

No day is ever the same!

For the sake of this blog let me try and break it down into the main thematic areas of my work. As the sun rises I am on my way to the security office to check up on the patrol teams. While their jobs include collecting data on wildlife sightings and threats to the conservancy as part of the SMART project, it is my job to check up on their progress and ensure that the phones are all working and collating data correctly.

Once I have that sorted, I jump in the plane with Michael, Loisaba’s new pilot on his morning flight patrol to see if we can locate any elephant groups. Elephant monitoring, as part of my role supporting Space for Giants,  is one of my most important jobs. After hopefully spotting a couple of suitable groups I go out by vehicle to locate and start identifying them. We are still at the beginning of this elephant ID project so usually they are new elephants but it is always exciting to see if I recognize an old friend. Over time we hope to identify all the individuals that pass through Loisaba to build an accurate picture of demographics and population size. I always keep an eye out to see whether any elephants are in trouble (e.g. signs of injuries) and alert the KWS vets when necessary. The cow elephant that was treated a few weeks ago on Loisaba for an arrow wound I had already identified in August, a female by the name of Esther.

Morning over, I head over to the Cactus Removal Team working in the south of the Conservancy. Loisaba, unfortunately suffers from an aggressive invasive species called Opuntiae engelmanii, a variety of prickly pear cactus. The elephants love it and it spread it across the Conservancy in their dung. It is critical for the health of the rangelands that it is removed. I check up on the team, monitor the work done and mark out new plots for its systematic removal.

Back to the office I sit down to collate the elephant sightings, draft the SMART management reports, enter the cactus removal data and catch up on emails.

Living and working on Loisaba Conservancy is unique. The incredible beauty of the place, the friendly colleagues and the exciting work. I love it!

By: Izzy Parsons

The future of Laikipia, Kenya and the continent as a whole lies firmly in the hands of the new generation and the decisions they will make in due course. Loisaba Conservancy recognizes the importance of creating stewards of the natural environment to safeguard this spectacular country. Consequently, we have developed a programme to connect children from the surrounding communities, who already live alongside wildlife (i.e. sometimes having to wait for an elephant to cross the road before continuing on their journey to school) to come to Loisaba to be immersed in the arena of wildlife conservation.

Last week Loisaba Conservancy facilitated an educational school trip for 18 Ewaso Primary School students. Accompanied by three teachers, the students who had been selected from classes 1-8 (ages eight to fourteen years of age), were taken on an exciting trip around the conservancy. It couldn’t have started better!

Upon entering the Conservancy, one of the resident prides of lions treated the students to a carefully executed morning hunt. From there the students visited the new Conservation Center at Loisaba HQ, where they were exposed to different ongoing research projects at Loisaba. Amos Chege our Conservation Officer and resident elephant researcher for Space for Giants and Lexson Larpei from San Diego Zoo provided fascinating presentations on their work in studying elephants and giraffes respectively.

From the classroom they went to the security Operations Room and were briefed on the work that the rangers do, how patrols are conducted and what the threats are to the conservancy. Mike Purchase, the new pilot at Loisaba then explained the role of ‘Kathy’, Loisaba’s new Piper Super Cub generously donated by The Nature Conservancy and her use for security, conservation efforts and monitoring the wildlife within the Conservancy.

After lunch, the children were introduced to Warrior and Machine, our resident sniffer dogs and given a demonstration on how they track down suspects. A group of six students peeled off with Dog Handler Ryan and ran off into the bushes, whilst Ekaran, in charge of the K9 unit kept the rest of the students back and explained how one can give the scent of the suspect to the dogs from their footprint. Having given Ryan and his team sufficient time to hide, Ekaran gave Machine Ryan’s scent and the remaining students ran after Machine and Ekaran in hot pursuit on the trail.

The students had the most wonderful day on the conservancy. If we can create even one future conservationist from this initial group we will have succeeded in our mandate. Special thanks to Loisaba Community Conservation Foundation; Elewana; The Nature Conservancy, Space for Giants and San Diego Zoo for making this day possible.
















By: Izzy Parsons

On Thursday morning Amos Chege, our Conservation Officer, received an urgent report from the Starbeds Lodge manager, a malnourished looking elephant calf had been spotted. He immediately rushed to the scene, easily located the calf and carefully observed the situation – to avoid making any rash decisions.

Amos observed the elephant calf try to join a nearby elephant herd but watched it being repeatedly rejected by the matriarch. It was clear that this calf did not belong to this herd and had become separated from its mother elsewhere. It was not clear how this had happened but he looked in bad shape and a decision needed to be made quickly. After brief consultation, we called the dedicated staff at Reteti Elephant Sanctuary on the nearby Namunyak Conservancy. The first community run elephant orphanage in Africa specifically established to rescue and reintroduce abandoned elephant calves in the vast northern Kenya landscape.

Reteti chartered a plane from Tropic Air Kenya without delay and they arrived with the professional staff of the North Kenya Veterinary Service. The calf was expertly darted, loaded onto the plane, strapped in and whisked away to safety. While it is terribly sad that this calf became separated from its mother, elephants are an incredibly resilient species and we hear he is doing well at Reteti. We are confident he will make a full recovery and maybe some day he will find his way back to Loisaba.

By early next morning there was yet another report involving an elephant. This time, the ever vigilant conservancy rangers had spotted an elephant cow with what looked to be an arrow wound. By the time Amos got to the scene to confirm the report, light was fading and all efforts to locate it failed.

At the crack of dawn Amos and a team of rangers generously funded by The Nature Conservancy were once again on the trail of the elephant. It took three hours of patient tracking to locate it, amongst all the confusing footprints of other elephants. Eventually, in thick bush they caught up with her. She was indeed badly wounded and required urgent medical attention. The Kenya wildlife service Vet team led by Dr. Dominic Mijele in collaboration with DSWT were informed and arrived from Nanyuki within a couple of hours.

Unfortunately, the elephant cow was not cooperating and had strayed into very difficult terrain. It took over half an hour for Dr. Mijele to get into position to comfortably take a shot with his dart gun. True to his aim the dart found its target and the elephant cow went down. The wound was thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Dr. Mijele was confident that she would make a full recovery over the coming week as the antibiotics take effect.

We can only speculate on what events led to her injury at the hands of a bow and arrow as well as the circumstances that led to the calf being abandoned. Regardless we feel incredibly lucky to work in landscape with such dedicated partners, all working tirelessly to look after Kenya’s wildlife: Kenya Wildlife Service; Space for Giants; Reteti Elephant Sanctuary Community United for Elephants; North Kenya Veterinary Service; DSWT; The Nature Conservancy; Tropic Air Kenya; Save the Elephants and Northern Rangelands Trust.

By: Izzy Parsons

With 56,000 acres of land to protect, what better means to do so other than by air? Loisaba Conservancy’s latest venture introduces their new Aerial Unit with “Kathy”, our very own Piper Super Cub.

She may be small and rugged but she is ideally suited for the flying required at Loisaba. Her large windows provide excellent visibility for ground observations and are quintessential to working alongside Loisaba Conservancy’s extensive ground patrol units.

As with most protected areas, there will always be some unauthorised visitors. Kathy will provide additional support to the ground teams in ensuring Laikipia’s elephant populations and other game remain safe, the grazing pressure is managed and any other forms of illegal activities that may take place on Loisaba Conservancy are prevented.

It is a critical time for wildlife conservation in Northern Kenya. Over the years, grazing pressure has increased substantially, threatening conservation efforts. With aerial support, this threat can be better mitigated and managed. Kathy will be taking part in the Aerial count of Elephants and other large mammals in the Laikipia-Samburu-Marsabit-Meru Ecosystems taking place in November.

Loisaba Conservancy is proud and excited to introduce Kathy to the conservation and security teams. A huge thank you to The Nature Conservancy and their generous donors who have enabled this to happen!

By: Izzy Parsons

Loisaba Snifferdogs

Two nights ago, Ekaran our Dog handler received a call for assistance from our sniffer dogs Machine and Warrior, following an incident at Ol Gaboli Community Bandas. A small Community lodge run by the Ilmotiok Community.

Early the next morning, Ekaran prepared the dogs and the equipment and arrived at the scene at first light. Inspection of the scene showed 6 foot tracks of people believed to have broken into the Community Bandas.

Ekaran took the scent and gave it to Machine who immediately started to trail. He trailed through bushes, crossing streams and led on to a Manyatta, after circling the boma he left and continued trailing. Machine continued for a further 4km and then entered another boma, circling it again and finally another.

The police chief and community elders decided to search all the bomas that Machine had entered, where they found all the stolen items: 4 mattresses, 6 new blankets, 14 sheets and 2 thermoses. The owners of these houses were arrested and Ekaran, Machine and Warrior returned back to Loisaba leaving the matter to the police.

The Community Chiefs and Elders were very grateful for the assistance and gave thanks to the Loisaba Conservancy Dog Unit for helping to recover the stolen items.

By: Nicholas Pilfold, Ph.D., San Diego Zoo Global

Dr. Nicholas Pilfold is a Large Carnivore Specialist with the Institute for Conservation Research at San Diego Zoo Global, and is a co-investigator for the Leopard Conservation Project. The aims of the Leopard Conservation Project are to better understand the ecology of leopards living on Loisaba Conservancy and reduce conflict between leopards and livestock with surrounding communities. The project began in June 2017.

Leopards can be one of the most challenging animals to track in the wild. Elusive and shy, leopards are masters of disguise, often seamlessly blending into the background. Of the Big Five, it is the one that most visitors to Africa never see.

However, for their conservation, it is vital that we determine how many leopards exist in the wild, and in many areas this information is missing. So, what is the best way to count leopards?

That is one of the questions we are trying to answer in a new conservation initiative on Loisaba Conservancy in central Kenya. We are using remote cameras to photograph leopards, and their unique coat patterns allow us to distinguish individuals.

But it is not as easy as just setting a bunch of cameras in the wild and hoping for the best. Researchers will often set cameras out in regularly spaced grids, with the idea of getting a sample of the animals that occupy the habitat. However, camera grids aimed at snapping pictures of secretive animals like leopards can suffer from low detection rates, and it can take many cameras operating for many days to get a sense of abundance. This can slow the time required to get an accurate population estimate and increase the workload of sorting thousands of images to find the few images of leopards.

This year in Kenya, we are taking a different tact: luring leopards into getting their picture taken. To understand what may attract a leopard to our cameras, we turned to our resident leopard experts here at San Diego Zoo, Gaylene Thomas and Todd Speis. They told us: Successful scent attractants for leopards include a variety of herbs – except catnip, ironically!  Scents such as wintergreen, cinnamon, and colognes such as CK Obsession for Men also do well.

So given that advice, we headed to Kenya armed with colognes and essential oils – not the usual items one has for fieldwork. We are currently testing which scent lures work the best to bring leopards out from hiding and have them linger long enough to get good images of coat patterns.

The initial results are promising, as our cameras are picking up leopards, and coat patterns are already starting to yield results. For example, Guide Brown from Tented Camp on Loisaba Conservancy took several pictures of a male leopard making a stunning daylight kill. When we began to examine the first sets of images from our cameras, we noticed an exact match in coat pattern on the left flank.

Not only will coat pattern recognition allow us to track leopards across space and time, it also provides the opportunity for citizen science. With the high powered cameras that many tourists carry, we are now initiating a sharing platform for tourist leopard photos on Loisaba Conservancy, so that we can maximize our detection of these elusive predators.


Copyright: © Nicholas Pilfold

Caption: Wildlife cameras deployed by SDZG researches capture an image of a male leopard on June 30, 2017 (left). After comparison, it was determined that this male was the same that a tour guide captured on his cell phone on June 10, 2017 (right). The red boxes indicate characteristic coat markings that are unique to this leopard.




Managing a conservancy as vast and diverse as Loisaba in a challenging landscape with limited resources can be tough, really tough. To do so effectively we have to be ‘Smart’ – literally. SMART also known by its longer name (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) is a specifically developed protected area management tool designed to measure, evaluate and improve the overall effectiveness of law enforcement patrols. In doing so protected area managers, such as Loisaba Conservancy CEO Tom Silvester are provided with the necessary information at their fingertips to make adaptive management decisions.

In April we started the SMART journey with assistance from our partners Space for Giants and the Zoological Society of London. Amos Chege and Redempta Njeri spent several months gradually training rangers in the use of a simple mobile phone App called Cybertracker, which is essentially the data collection vehicle for SMART. Some of the rangers got the hang of it straight away while others struggled, but by the end of June we had identified and trained sufficient rangers to have one competent user per patrol group on the conservancy.

Today, every patrol group on the conservancy is hard at work collecting critical information on wildlife sightings and potential threats (e.g. snares and/or poaching) to wildlife. Because the phones that the rangers use are GPS enabled, we are able to view their patrols on a computer giving us an indication of the patrol effort (e.g. distance patrolled, hours patrolled etc.) where they recorded sightings and threat and possibly most importantly, what the blind spots are on the conservancy.

Every week, Amos Chege, Loisaba’s Conservation Officer visits each patrol base and downloads the data onto his computer. Together with input from the Space for Giants team a weekly report is created giving us a spatial view of what is happening on the conservancy and this is then discussed by the management to take appropriate action. SMART is proving to be a ‘game-changer’ and is going to help Loisaba develop into one of the leading conservancies in the landscape.

By: Izzy Parsons